Saturday, September 24, 2011


Menurut kamus dewan, (2002) mentakrifkan kreativiti sebagai kebolehan mencipta dan mengembangkan idea yang baru dan asli tanpa peniruan dalam mana-mana aspek.


1. Fleksibel
2. sensitif
3. peka
4. asli dan tulen tanpa peniruan
5. bersifat luas
6. logik dan efisien
7. bebas berfikir kreatif


1. E.Paul Torrance
2. Victor Lowenfeld
3. Fisher (1943)
4. Laura H. Chapman


secara keseluruhan, proses menjurus ke arah pemikiran kreatif perlu mengambil kira faktor keperluan seseorang individu itu untuk melihat minat, keinginan dan semangat ingin tahu semula jadi bagi menyuburkan proses kreativiti dlam penghasilan produk yang menarik.

Gambar-gambar kreatif

Gambar-gambar kreatif 
Imej pasangan kekasih yang diperbuat daripada pasir
Imej seorang lelaki yang lengkap berpakaian seolah-olah berkuasa
Labah - labah gergasi yang dibuat dari pasir
Imej seorang perempuan yang sedang meniarap dibentuk mengunakan pasir
Imej perempuan dan lelaki yang sedang baring di atas katil yang diperbuat dengan mengunakan pasir.kreatifkan?
Karya yang dihasilkan dengan mengunakan pasir

Imej lelaki tua dan berhampiran dengannya ada ime singa.semuanya diperbuat daripada pasir

Menarik dan kreatif !!!

Friday, April 1, 2011


Creativity in psychology and cognitive science

The study of the mental representations and processes underlying creative thought belongs to the domains of psychology and cognitive science.
A psychodynamic approach to understanding creativity was proposed by Sigmund Freud, who suggested that creativity arises as a result of frustrated desires for fame, fortune and love, with the energy that was previously tied up in frustration and emotional tension in the neurosis being sublimated into creative activity. Freud later retracted this view.[citation needed]

[edit] Graham Wallas

Graham Wallas, in his work Art of Thought, published in 1926, presented one of the first models of the creative process. In the Wallas stage model, creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages:
(i) preparation (preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's mind on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions),
(ii) incubation (where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening),
(iii) intimation (the creative person gets a "feeling" that a solution is on its way),
(iv) illumination or insight (where the creative idea bursts forth from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness); and
(v) verification (where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, and then applied).
In numerous publications, Wallas' model is just treated as four stages, with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage. There has been some empirical research looking at whether, as the concept of "incubation" in Wallas' model implies, a period of interruption or rest from a problem may aid creative problem-solving. Ward[23] lists various hypotheses that have been advanced to explain why incubation may aid creative problem-solving, and notes how some empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that incubation aids creative problem-solving in that it enables "forgetting" of misleading clues. Absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem.[24] This work disputes the earlier hypothesis that creative solutions to problems arise mysteriously from the unconscious mind while the conscious mind is occupied on other tasks.[25]
Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process, which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments. Simonton[26] provides an updated perspective on this view in his book, Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity

creatif drawing

Traditional views in the West and East

It is generally thought that "creativity" in Western culture was originally seen as a matter of divine inspiration.[2] In Greek culture, for instance, Muses were seen as mediating inspiration from the Gods.[14] Romans and Greeks invoked the concept of an external creative "daemon" (Greek) or "genius" (Latin), linked to the sacred or the divine. This probably came closest to describing what the modern age views as creative talent.[15] In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the sole province of God; humans were not considered to have the ability to create something new except as an expression of God's work.[16]
The traditional Western view of creativity can be contrasted with the traditional Eastern view. For Hindus, Confucianists, Taoists and Buddhists, creation was at most a kind of discovery or mimicry, and the idea of creation "from nothing" had no place in these philosophies and religions.[15]

[edit] The Enlightenment and after

In the West, this view of creativity as divinely inspired was dominant until the time of the renaissance and even later.[16] However, by the 18th century and the Age of Enlightenment, mention of creativity (notably in art theory), linked with the concept of imagination, became more frequent.[17] In the writing of Thomas Hobbes, imagination became a key element of human cognition;[2] William Duff was one of the first to identify imagination as a quality of genius, typifying the separation being made between talent (productive, but breaking no new ground) and genius.[14]
As a direct and independent topic of study, creativity effectively received no attention until the 19th century.[14] Runco and Albert argue that creativity as the subject of proper study began seriously to emerge in the late 19th century with the increased interest in individual differences inspired by the arrival of Darwinism. In particular they refer to the work of Francis Galton, who through his eugenicist outlook took a keen interest in the heritability of intelligence,with creativity taken as an aspect of genius.[2]
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, leading mathematicians and scientists such as Hermann von Helmholtz (1896) and Henri Poincaré (1908) began to reflect on and publicly discuss their creative processes, and these insights were built on in early accounts of the creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallas[18] and Max Wertheimer.
In 1927, Alfred North Whitehead gave the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, later published as Process and Reality.[19] He is credited with having coined the term "creativity" to serve as the ultimate category of his metaphysical scheme: "Whitehead actually coined the term – our term, still the preferred currency of exchange among literature, science, and the arts. . . a term that quickly became so popular, so omnipresent, that its invention within living memory, and by Alfred North Whitehead of all people, quickly became occluded”.[20]
The formal psychometric measurement of creativity, from the standpoint of orthodox psychological literature, is usually considered to have begun with J. P. Guilford's 1950 address to the American Psychological Association, which helped popularize the topic[21] and focus attention on a scientific approach to conceptualizing creativity. (It should be noted that the London School of Psychology had instigated psychometric studies of creativity as early as 1927 with the work of H. L. Hargreaves into the Faculty of Imagination,[22] but it did not have the same impact.) Statistical analysis led to the recognition of creativity(as measured) as a separate aspect of human cognition to IQ-type intelligence, into which it had previously been subsumed. Guilford's work suggested that above a threshold level of IQ, the relationship between creativity and classically measured intelligence broke down

kreatif drawing


In a summary of scientific research into creativity Michael Mumford suggested: "“Over the course of the last decade, however, we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products” (Mumford, 2003, p. 110).[4] Beyond this general commonality, authors have diverged dramatically in their precise definitions, with Peter Meusburger claiming that over a hundred different versions can be found in the literature.[5]

[edit] Aspects of creativity

Theories of creativity (in particular investigating why some people are more creative than others) have focused on a variety of aspects. The most dominant are usually identified as the four "Ps" - process, product, person and place.[6] A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking. Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking (such as Guilford), or those describing the staging of the creative process (such as Wallas) are primarily theories of creative process. A focus on creative product usually appears in attempts to measure creativity in people (psychometrics, see below), or in creative ideas framed as successful memes.[7] A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory behaviour and so on. A focus on place considers the best circumstances in which creativity flourishes, including degrees of autonomy, access to resources and the nature of gatekeepers.

[edit] Historical and personal creativity

The product of "creativity" has typically been defined in one of two ways: either as something historically new (and relatively rare), such as scientific discoveries or great works of art; or as producing something new in a personal sense - an apparent innovation for the creator, regardless of whether others have made similar innovations, or whether others value the particular act of creation. In the former sense there are writers such as Mihály Csíkszentmihályi[8] have defined creativity in terms of rare individuals who have been judged by others to have made significant creative, often domain-changing contributions (and as such, the level of creativity of an individual can vary over historical time as perceptions change), and Simonton, who has analysed the career trajectories of the creatively eminent in order to map patterns and predictors of creative productivity.[9] In the latter sense, writers such as Ken Robinson,[10] and Anna Craft[11] have focussed on creativity in a general population, particularly with respect to education.
There are a variety of labels for the two sides of this dichotomy. Margaret Boden distinguishes between h-creativity (historical) and p-creativity (personal).[12] Craft makes a similar distinction between "high" and "little c" creativity.[11] while Craft cites Robinson referring to "high" and "democratic" creativity. Common also is the pairing of terms "Big C" and "Little C".
Kozbelt, Beghetto and Runco, use a little-c/Big-C model to review major theories of creativity [6] This approach was first introduced by James C. Kaufman and Beghetto into a four C model: mini-c (transformative learning), which are "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions and insights"; little-c (everyday problem solving and creative expression); Pro-C, exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative but not eminent, and Big-C, reserved for those who are considered truly great in their field. This was to help distinguish more clearly between the amateur unapprenticed in the particular creative domain (e.g. the visual arts, astrophysics etc.), the professional who was domain-competent, and creative genius. The four-c model was also intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed domain-competence as an essential component, and domain transformation as the highest mark of creativity; it also, they argued, made a useful framework for analysing creative processes in individuals

semi abstrak 2...

Sam Fischer's Semi-Abstract Art

Sam Fischer's semi-abstract art is an eclectic mix of highly appealing and unique paintings and sculpture. With an eye for producing a beautiful collection of unusual and thought-provoking semi-abstract art, his mediums are as varied as his art.

Semi-Abstract Painting

Using a wide variety of mediums to produce some of the finest semi-abstract art in the world, Sam Fischer's collections are as unique as his choices of materials. Traditional oil on canvas, acrylics, and watercolors are combined with his semi-abstract style.
Solidifying his uncommon voice in semi-abstract art are his skilled and singular uses of screened paper paintings, polymer films, collage linen tints, wax paper collages, diptych paper collages, paper painting collages, live lines, and many more combinations of paper collage forms and material combinations.
The mixture of painting materials and methods merged with his distinctive eye create a collection of semi-abstract paintings that matchlessly complement the world of art.

Semi-Abstract Sculpture

Going beyond semi-abstract art paintings are Sam Fischer's collection of fine sculpture. Blending materials to create distinguishing textures and timbres, his sculptures are as unique as his paintings. From traditional clays, wood and plastic to paper polymer aggregates, wood polymer aggregates, marble dust polymer aggregates, steel stone paper polymer aggregates, gold leaf paper polymer aggregates, and more combinations along with exceptional skill make his sculptures treasures.

The Man Behind the Semi-Abstract Art

Sam Fischer is a world-renowned semi-abstract artist who has been producing his own special brand of art for well over fifty years. His semi-abstract art is featured in galleries, museums, and showings around the world, in places like Rome, London, New York, Chicago, and Washington D.C. Mr. Fischer was also a recipient of the coveted Fulbright Fellowship in Rome

Thursday, March 10, 2011


Kreatif dan inovatif dalam pengurusan. Bagaimana caranya? 

Budaya berfikir secara kreatif dan inovatif dalam pengurusan atau dalam apa2 bidang yang diceburi sememangnya penting. 

Ada yang hanya mengaitkan kreatif dan inovatif ini hanya untuk orang seni sahaja. Betulkah?

Terlebih dahulu perlu diketahui definisi kreatif dan inovatif ini.

Kreativiti merupakan anugerah tuhan kepada semua tetapi kita abaikannya. Kreativiti adalah penting dalam apa sahaja yang kita lakukan seperti hiasan, persolekan, jamuan perniagaan dan lain-lain. Kita boleh belajar berfikiran kreatif melalui pemerhatian dan boleh menerangkannya. Kita berfikir luar dari kotak pemikiran yang biasa. 

Beberapa tokoh dalam disiplin sains pemikiran antara lain menjelaskan bahawa kreativiti amat rapat dengan aktiviti dan gaya hidup manusia. Antara definisi yang diberikan adalah: 
“... diri dalam keadaan bergerak balas ketika ia dirangsang dengan cara dinamik.” 
(Hopkins, 1937 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001) 

“... sebagai gaya hidup” 
(Fomm, 1959 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001) 

“proses yang dilalui oleh seseorang dalam pengalaman seharian yang membawa perbaikan – pertumbuhan diri.” 
(Andrews, 1961 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001) 

“... satu proses yang seseorang itu menjadi peka terhadap masalah, kekurangan, jurang pengetahuan, unsur-unsur yang hilang, ketidakharmonian dan sebgainya; mengenal pasti perkara-perkara sukar, mencari penyelesaian, membuat tekaan atau membentuk hipotesis tentang kekurangan-kekurangan itu; menguji dan menguji semula hipotesis-hipotesis ini dan mungkin mengubah suai dan mengujinya semula; dan akhir sekali menyalurkan keputusannya kepada orang lain.” 
(Boon dan Ragbir, 1998) 

(b) Sintesis definisi berkenaan dan hasilkan definisi baru 

Salah satu daripada sumber kreativiti ialah merujuk kepada kepakaran seseorang. Banyak buku yang boleh memberi sumber pemikiran yang kreatif yang tidak boleh dibayangkan banyaknya. Sekiranya kita bukan merupakan ulat buku tidak mengapa tetapi melalui tontonan tayangan gambar boleh memberi idea yang menarik melalui jalan ceritanya. Kegemaran ini boleh dijadikan tips bagi seseorang itu memperoleh idea yang kreatif. Oleh yang demikian kreativiti tidak boleh dipaksa. Kita memerlukan ketenangan dalam mencari idea yang kreatif. Sekiranya kita dalam keadaan tertekan disebabkan kita terpaksa membentangkan sesuatu dalam jangka masa yang pendek kita mungkin akan gagal. Dengan beberapa pengecualian, kreativiti boleh terhasil dalam keadaan kita tertekan dan menghasilkan sesuatu yang baik. Dari itu sentiasalah menulis sesuatu idea apabila terfikirkannya walaupun terjaga di tengah malam dari tidur. Jangan kita fikirkan bahawa anda akan ingat sehingga esoknya jika tidak menulisnya. Sekiranya anda tidak mencatatnya anda akan lupa. Fikiran kreatif boleh datang pada bila-bila masa. Dari itu kita perlu sentiasa bersedia. 

2) Inovatif 

(a) Dapatkan definisi inovatif dari literatur 

•inovatif berasal daripada perkataan Latin yang bermaksud pembaharuan.
•inovatif adalah kesan daripada aplikasi keuoayaan kreatif khususnya dalam industri yang memerlukan konsep, idea, kaedah, proses dan kegunaan yang baru.
•inovatif bermaksud kebolehan untuk membuat pembaharuan atau mengubahsuai untuk menjadikannya lebih baik, elok, berkualiti dan sebagainya. 

(b) Sintesis definisi berkenaan dan hasilkan definisi baru 

•satu cara untuk memperkenalkan idea baru untuk membuat sesuatu atau mencipta sesuatu yang baru.
•inovatif adalah satu proses mengeluarkan idea dan mengubahnya ke bentuk produk, perkhidmatan, sistem dan cara operasi yang baru.
•walaupun idea dihasilkan melalui proses tertentu seperti rekacipta, pembangunan, pengeluaran dan sebagainya, ia akan menjadi suatu inovasi jika idea tersebut benar-benar dapat digunakan dan dimanfaatkan. 

3) Apakah perkaitan antara kreativiti dan inovasi dalam konteks pendidikan komputer 

•pelajar akan dapat berfikir secara kreatif menggunkan minda untuk mencipta dan menghasilkan sesuatu yang baru, asli, berbagai, luarbiasa, bernilai dan provokatif.
•mengembangkan dan memperluaskan daya imaginasi kreatif dan inovatif untuk mendapatkan idea.
•melihat sesuatu perkara secara menyeluruh. 

Pemikiran kreatif dan pengembangan ide memang tidak mudah. Contoh sederhana tadi terjadi dalam waktu yang tak terduga. Mengalir seperti air. Tetapi Zimmerer (2009) menegaskan bahwa kreatifitas dapat diajarkan dan kreatifitas individual dapat ditingkatkan. Caranya? 

Ia menguraikan 11 cara untuk meningkatkan kreatifitas individual yaitu:

1. Beri kesempatan diri Anda menjadi kreatif.

Berani untuk berpikir kreatif tanpa takut dibilang bodoh oleh orang lain. Ide-ide cemerlang biasanya lahir dari hal-hal yang mungkin dianggap bodoh dan tak berarti.

2. Beri pikiran Anda masukan segar setiap hari.

Agar kreatif, otak perlu distimulasi dengan hal-hal baru yang variatif. Mendengarkan radio dan berganti-ganti setiap hari, mendengarkan beraneka ragam jenis musik atau melakukan hal-hal lain yang sebelumnya tidak pernah dilakukan.

3. Amati berbagai produk dan jasa perusahaan lainnya, terutama yang berada dalam pasar yang benar-benar berbeda.

Tidak ada salahnya meminjam ide perusahaan lain, kemudian mengembangkan menjadi inovasi yang brilian.

4. Sadari kekuatan kreatif dari kesalahan.

Orang bijak mengatakan agar kita selalu belajar dari kesalahan yang diperbuat. Orang kreatif mengatakan kita dapat memperoleh ide dari kesalahan yang kita buat. Kisah Charles Goodyear menunjukkan hal tersebut. Setelah bekerja selama lima tahun untuk memformulasikan kombinasi karet, belerang dan timah putih, pada malam yang dingin tahun 1839, tanpa sengaja Charles menumpahkan sedikit campuran tersebut pada kompor kerjanya. Campuran tersebut meleleh membentuk senyawa baru yang selama ini dicari-cari!

5. Bawalah selalu buku harian untuk mencatat pikiran dan ide Anda.

Ide-ide kreatif kadang muncul tanpa disengaja dan di waktu yang tak terduga. Daripada cepat terlupa, ada baiknya membawa buku kecil untuk mencatat ide-ide yang mungkin akan muncul tiba-tiba.

6. Dengarkan orang lain.

Ide tidak selalu datang dari diri kita sendiri. Ide dapat datang dari orang lain atau bahkan kompetitor kita sendiri. Jadi selalu dengarkan orang lain karena mungkin ia akan menghadirkan ide cemerlang buat kita.

7. Dengarkan apa kata pelanggan.

Mendengarkan pelanggan wajib hukumnya. Mereka mengkonsumsi produk kita dan sekaligus menjadi sumber ide yang tiada habisnya.

8. Berbicara dengan anak kecil.

Anak-anak tidak membatasi pemikiran mereka. Mereka begitu bebas mengungkapkan kreatifitas mereka tanpa batas. Mereka dapat menjadi sumber ide yang berharga.

9. Simpan kotak mainan di kantor Anda.

Mainan-mainan kecil seperti yoyo, gasing dan lain-lain dapat menjadi sumber inspirasi. Ketika sedang bingung, Anda dapat mengambil satu dan memikirkan bagaimana benda tersebut berkaitan dengan masalah Anda.

10. Baca buku mengenai cara merangsang kreatifitas dan mengambil kursus kreatifitas.

Memahami prinsip-prinsip kreatifitas akan sangat membantu meningkatkan kemampuan kreatif kita.

11. Luangkan waktu Anda.

Sesekali luangkan waktu untuk berelaksasi, melepaskan diri dari rutinitas sejenak. Ide-ide baru bisa muncul ketika otak kita tidak dalam keadaan tegang.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011


Jika dilihat dari aspek saintifik, kreativiti adalah penggunaan hemisfera otak kanan (HOKA) yang berfungsi untuk menjana kreativiti, sintesis, global, bentuk corak, pola, ruang, lukisan, rentak, muzik, imej, visual dan gambar imaginasi ( Shukri Zain. 2007:152) terdapat 4 kemahiran berfikir secara kreatif iaitu menjana dan menghasilkan idea, mencipta metafora, mendipta analogi dan mencipta definisi. Kreativiti merupakan anugerah tuhan kepada setiap insan yang berada di atas muka bumi ini namun kita selalu mengabaikannya. Kreativiti adalah penting dalam apa sahaja yang kita lakukan seperti hiasan, persolekan, jamuan perniagaan dan lain-lain. Kita boleh belajar berfikiran kreatif melalui pemerhatian dan boleh menerangkannya. Kita berfikir luar dari kotak pemikiran yang biasa. Adakah cara kita bertanya untuk boleh menjadikan seseorang itu berfikiran kreatif? Cara kita bertanya boleh menukarkan cara kita berfikir (mindset). Ia mengajar kita bagaimana sesuatu input (sama ada rangsangan deria atau maklumat) dapat diterangkan dan terbentuk dalam imageri dan minda seseorang untuk menerima maklumat.

Dari sudut pandangan seni visual pula, kreativiti dalam seni adalah satu perbuatan berfikir yang kreatif dan bernas tentang sesuatu idea untuk menghasilkan sesuatu dengan memikirkan aspek – aspek permasalahan yang akan muncul dan memikirkan penyelesaian masalah tersebut.

Beberapa tokoh dalam disipilin sains pemikiran antara lain menjelaskan bahawa kreativiti amat rapat dengan aktiviti dan gaya hidup manusia. Antara definisi yang diberikan adalah:

“... diri dalam keadaan bergerak balas ketika ia dirangsang dengan cara dinamik.”
(Hopkins, 1937 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001)

“... sebagai satu pemikiran dalam hidup”
(Fomm, 1959 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001)

“proses yang dilalui oleh seseorang dalam pengalaman seharian yang membwa perbaikan – pertumbuhan diri.”
(Andrews, 1961 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001)

“... satu proses yang seseorang itu menjadi peka terhadap masalah, kekurangan, jurang pengetahuan, unsur-unsur yang hilang, ketidakharmonian dan sebgainya; mengenal pasti perkara-perkara sukar, mencari penyelesaian, membuat tekaan atau membentuk hipotesis tentang kekurangan-kekurangan itu; menguji dan menguji semula hipotesis-hipotesis ini dan mungkin mengubah suai dan mengujinya semula; dan akhir sekali menyalurkan keputusannya kepada orang lain.”
(Boon dan Ragbir, 1998)

“...melihat apa yang orang lain sudah nampak dan memikirkan apa yang belum difikirkan oleh orang lain.”
(Torrance, 1974)

“Creativity is the connecting and rearranging of knowledge-in the minds of people who will allow themselves to think flexibly-to generate new, often surprisingly ideas that others judge to be useful.”
(Plesk, 1997 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001)

“kreativiti adalah proses yang dilakukan oleh seseorang yang menyebabkan ia mencipta sesuatu baginya.”
(Mead, 1959 dalam Mohd Azhar Abd. Hamid, 2001)